Writing a Rhetorical Analysis Outline

hello this is mr. Buchanan this is a little slideshow I made for you about how to do an effective rhetorical analysis you only get right while finding your own voice it’s important to remember that as you’re doing this there are guidelines for doing a successful one that I would encourage you to follow but those are not written in stone I think the ultimate goal is to remember that you are demonstrating your ability to analyze the selection which you have read and then write about what you have read and how that author is communicating his and her ideas to an audience and whether or not that author is being effective make sure that you did this make sure that you read the selection as carefully as possible and these are some of the the points that we have been using in class throughout the year that you want to remember as you are reading each selection first of all make sure that you’re looking at the tour who appeals these could be ethos which is how does an author develop his or her credibility remember that there is an automatically knows which comes with the author depending on is or her credentials but also you want to make sure that you are looking at how the author appeals to the audience using logic and reason remember that everyone is trying to persuade the audience to think differently to look at the world differently to make changes when necessary so using logic and reason is one way of doing that and that is considered rhetorical field another appeal that many authors use is appealing to people emotions selections that strictly appeal to people’s emotions are not always successful simply because we can’t always predict when an audience is going to think or feel but there is a certain level of emotional appeal that is necessary in order to convince people to change your thoughts or accept a different course of action another aspect of the selection that you can examine is exactly who the speaker is and what does the selection reveal to us about the speaker who is he who is she where they from what values does the speaker have that are evident in the text those are actually things that you can bring out in a rhetorical analysis because that’s part of what a an author is doing is you’re getting part of what he or she believes to be true to what he or she believes to be values another aspect of your text preparation and annotation is looking at how the entire selection is is organized what role does the first paragraph have of a selection how does the second paragraph build on what the first paragraph is doing what is the the purpose of this section in the text that will allow you to look at larger portions of the text a little more individually as opposed to looking at the whole selection so break it down into smaller parts you know what works best for you I typically like to look at it maybe two to three sections but again you can look at this however you want to look at it next is the author’s writing style what are the words was the person is using what types of sentences is a person using are they mixing short sentences with longer sentences is the vocabulary elevated or using a simpler vocabulary to communicate to the audience that’s all part of the writer style rhetorical devices and imagery while ap is not real big on identifying every single device it’s in a selection it’s actually better to explain what you think the author is doing and to be more than to be concerned about identifying each particular advice see the device also pay attention to the author’s use of imagery all these devices and imagery serve a purpose why is the author choosing to use a metaphor why is the author choosing to use an allusion to another selection or work what purpose does this imagery serve in the actual text it’s not just that the author is just using that you’re using it for a reason and it’s up to you to decide how the author is using it and whether or not it’s effective and finally probably the most important one is what exactly is the overarching theme what’s the message that the author is attempting to convey to his or her audience once an audience hears the speech or reads a letter or reads a speech or a passage from an essay what does the author want is or her audience to take with them and as you’re looking at the thing also pay very close attention to the tone avoiding such words is it’s a happy tone or Satta tone take a look at your strong verb sheet that will give you a list of different tongue words be very cognizant of the words that you choose to describe what the authors doing because that will help you to make any more successful torkoal analysis once you are finished with the analysis itself you can go ahead and start deciding how you want to organize your actual rhetorical analysis of the selection I’m going to give you two examples an example to go along with each one of those the best way that I have found this this takes a great deal of skill in a great deal of confidence as a writer that is to examine the section sequentially what does you often do at the very beginning in order to convey his or her ideas what does the author do towards the end you can organize by sections of the selection that will help you actually organize your essay as you write it this will help you to demonstrate understanding of the different parts of the essay it will also allow you to have closer examination of the part for example if an author begins the selection by describing a certain setting or certain aspect of his or her life you know that you can go deeper into that say well how does the author describe the setting or his or her life and it allows you to be more specific if you look at the devices that the author is using in order to do that and whether or not they are effective and it definitely helps you as a writer particularly on the AP exam if you work through sequentially when you have to jump with when you jump around from point to point at developing your essay you’re not you may not pick up everything that you need to pick up but if you go through structurally from the beginning until the end you’ll have a stronger essay let me give you a quick example of that this is a claim that you would possibly have at the beginning of one of your body paragraphs throughout the paragraphs at the outset of the selection the author describes itself or describing in order to convey what to the audience and we’ll just rate what and that’s where that’s a good frame sentence for you to use and it clearly I’d like you to develop your own style with this move away from the frame sentence that I provided here and that’s a good way to get started another organizational style this one is it is effective I prefer the sectional sequential style but you can actually be very effective in the rhetorical analysis just simply by relying on the author’s use of rhetorical appeals this also will help you to organize sections based on the types of Appeals it helps you to focus are the reasons for using the rhetorical appeals and how it affects them affects the audience’s if you struggle with rhetorical analysis this kind of forces you into it because you just can’t say well the author uses logic and reason here and the odds author uses appeals to emotion here you have to explain why they’re using that and and how it could possibly affect the audience and whether that’s whether or not that’s a effective way of of conveying his or her ideas it it also allows for a closer examination of parts if you do it that way you pick out some good examples of how the author is doing know that and as always I would definitely work through sequentially that means both in the beginning of the essay to the end so if you decide to focus on logic and reason initially in one of your body paragraphs throughout them but starting at the beginning towards the end what are some ways in which the author uses logic and reason throughout the entire essay it’s not good enough just to give one example you have to give us multiple examples of that I’m going to give you an example of a claim that you would use in the body throughout the selection the author uses appeals to logic and reason in order to demonstrate what will you convey luck to the audience that’s for you to fill in again this is a frame sentence I’ve encouraged you to develop here in the style from this once you’ve done decide about what organizational style you want to use I want you to to create an outline of your actual rhetorical analysis until we really get into the habit of doing this almost instinctually so what I need you to do is on a piece of loose-leaf paper I’m going to ask you to copy what I have up there at the very beginning what says opening I remember this is me what we’ve talked about before what how and so what format but I’ve added a couple other questions to this and maybe this will help you do that so up at the top of your loose-leaf paper and you will write opening : what is the selection about why is the author writing this who is the audience and capitalize the lot why and do this will help you hopefully remember that that’s what you have to include in there it helped us become more it’s instinctual for you so when you do the outline right after that opening statement there I just like you to write a Roman numeral rough one and then write soap snow and then underneath that is put a b c d e f it’s soapstone remember it’s speaker occasion audience purpose subject and tone and just list the items there I’m not worried about those being in complete sentences right now just most all all six of those and you’re good to go after that I do want you to write the thesis and I’d like you to write this out on your outline at this time there are three parts to it remember each one of these needs to be linked together you have to include the author I like to include the author’s name now be careful about including off just using the author’s first name when I make sure that you’re keeping this as formal as possible you actually want to mention the rhetorical strategies that the author is using and this could be a time when you could actually put in the items that you’re going to mention in your organization of your rhetorical analysis the things that you plan to discuss so the author uses these rhetorical appeals in order to convey this purpose or overarching theme remember that the opening is where you’re really capturing the reader’s attention and demonstrating whether or not you truly understand what the author is saying so again would be relative or one that ABCDEF the minimal to thesis and just put all all like the ABC don’t list them there I’d rather than you write it the thesis as a sentence right beside number two next is the body and right after you’re done with the the opening I would like you to write this down as well body how does the author convey his or her ideas how does it connect with the audience those are questions that you need to answer with the buck within the body of your essay this can be anywhere from two to maybe four paragraphs again this is entirely up to you depending on how you want to organize it I would encourage to the three paragraphs but if you go if you do it differently depending on how your organization is set up it can be done either way and give you a little model now of the outline you will restart the Roman numeral so you have one and then you’ll have the claim and I’m going to put a model here for you throughout the paragraphs you can out set up a selection the often describes blank in order to blank again frame sentence and then the A’s and the a and B underneath each one are gonna be similar okay letter A is a specific example that the author uses number one will be an evaluative explanation of use evaluative meaning you know you should be using words like successfully to convey whether or not the author is doing a good job on this most of the selections are going to receive the author is going a good job it’s rare that you’re going to receive I can’t imagine if you would receive a selection of the author you on the court so a is a specific example and then it’s an eval you to explanation of the use how is he author and using that and then number two is an evaluative explanation of the effect on the audience these are just things that you want to say I don’t want to make this out to be a there’s a sentence one is a sentence two as a sentence and then when you have a second example V is a sentence and then one is a sentence and two it’s a sentence that’s not what this is this is just organizing your ideas you will take this outline and develop this into your own specific essay in your own style so this is just getting your ideas together for this now let me give you an example Roman numeral one throughout the paragraphs at the outset of the selection the author describes his feelings related to being quote invisible in order in order to convey a sense of loneliness and separation to the audience notice that I used the word invisible there and I put that in quotation marks because that’s an actual word that the author is using my a alison compares this isolation to being at a circus sideshow with mirrors of hard distorted glass around him notice that I underlined to put red the strong bird that I’m using I didn’t just put down the author writes the author says but the author compares this isolation to being at a quote circus sideshow end quote with quote mirrors of hardest Orting glass and quote around him that’s taking small bits of text and putting it within my words to support that I can write this comparison effectively shows how know what a society seasoned for who he is remember to the author’s imagery successfully conveys up to the audience this isolation again conveys compares I’m demonstrating what I’m doing there now clearly when I’m writing this out I’m going to do this so that it is not a rigid organizational tool I would want to write this in such a way run down the sharing my creative ability as a writer as well the closing and again once you do the body so what does it all mean so how effective is the author these are just two Roman numerals here number one restate the overarching theme of the entire selection then we to explain the effectiveness of the rhetoric and the selection I would just put two sentences here and then if you have time as you’re writing if it’s a timed writing or if it’s for the AP exam if you have time to develop it develop it if you don’t you just quickly put some ideas down here and finish it off a lot of times if you have done an effective job on the actual body the closing is just summarizing what you’ve already said so just you remember you have to restate with the theme is if you get with the whole selections about and you have to explain the effectiveness of the rhetoric and the selection how good of a job with the author do how did this would how will this have affected the audience and here’s some advice as you write just some things to consider uh number one please make sure you’re using the strong virtue gave that to you at the beginning of the year the more you use it now the more it will become embedded in your vocabulary if you wait around to later to start using it it’s gonna be harder to remember how to do this particularly for the AP exam so I can use the tone words at the bottom of the stromberg sheet there are so many other tone words out there but this the list that I have there for you that’s definitely a good start and those are words that you should be using avoiding such words as sad happy as tongue words I would encourage you to use smaller pieces of text incorporating with your own language the more successful essays do not have an entire sentence in quotation marks and then an explanation it’s better to have smaller pieces of text with your own language that is how you are going to be successful on rhetorical analysis I should not see any entire sentences that you have copied from the text and then saying okay now this sentence they do this please be very careful about what you’re going there next one please take risks with your writing it’s it this is not the easiest type of selection to do type of writing to do but you have to take some risks with it you’re not going to find out how good you can be at this unless you you start saying I’m going to do this a little bit differently and take some chances and finally be patient with yourself this is an ongoing process and you’re not easy to write by any means but if you if you take your time and patient with yourself and use some of the strategies that you have here by the time of the end of the year come through the AP exam it’ll be fine so just enjoy yourself as you’re doing and I know it’s not an exciting piece of learning for you to do but it is it it is something that you will be expected to do on the college level okay I hope this slideshow has helped you good luck on your rhetorical analysis

Types of Case Study. Part 1 of 3 on Case Studies

the you okay so case studies as I said one of the three major strategies along with surveys and experiments what is a case study well I’m going to borrow this definition from Colleen Robson’s book a case study is a strategy of doing research and strategy coming out here involves an empirical investigation of a particular contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context using multiple sources of evidence so let me just go back to some of those terms in turn and a particular contemporary phenomenon so it’s it’s particular suggest there’s one of them although that’s not always the case and it might be several whatever it is units cases in a case study it isn’t always one case study sometimes it is but can be several and I’ll talk about that in later slide some of the issues around how you choose the cases and what they mean really writing to each other contemporary phenomenon and I think the world here that the important word here is the phenomenon it it is a very general term a phenomenon so it means it’s something that’s going on and and that phenomenon can be a person and often is a person but it can be lots of other things to other other social phenomena like organizations or events or places and so on so it’s some phenomena it’s something happening or somebody doing something or some group of people doing something that you’re studying and of course it’s contemporary is happening now so you’re studying it now it’s not historical approach although of course I’m sure historians do use case studies as well next you do it within its real-life context that’s another key point I think about case studies is the contextual aspect of it that you’re doing it in its context I think the biggest contrast there is with experiments where you tend to do experiments in the lab you tend to bring people in to your your research institution your university whatever — as volunteers to work in your experiment and offered in the lab or some similar office or room to work Kim in the case of case studies it’s very much a case of going out to wherever the phenomenon is so wherever the people are wherever the event is happening wherever the institution is you go out there and you you study it in its context and in its context means also you bring into account all the contextual factors the fact that it’s operating all those people are operating in a wider world with things going on things happening things affecting them they’re affecting other things and so on so all those kind of relationships are part of the the context and lastly using multiple sources of evidence and in typically a case study as I said it’s most common in the qualitative field so it’s very much associated with a lot of the qualitative approaches such as interviews observations including particularly participant observation ethnography but it can be other sources too and probably the other major one that’s used in case that is these documents so if you’re going into an organization you would typically talk to people observe them doing things they’re doing and perhaps collect the documents that they are keeping about their activities in an organization so so working for example in commercial organizations a factory or an office is a typical case study approach you choose one site to do your work that’s the case and then you collect information by talking to employees and collecting the data there that they’re keeping about their activities there there and minutes of meetings and the other guidance documents they use and of course you observe them doing what they’re doing okay to go through the next few points the case study may be descriptive exploratory or explanatory actually most research strategies can be this I talked very briefly about this last week with surveys surveys tend to be descriptive but they can if you ask the right kind of questions be exploratory and even expand Ettore the same is true of case studies I mean they are probably most well-known for a kind of I guess an expiratory approach to things the second one down here where you’re exploring an area and in fact reason why people often use case studies is because not enough is known about the area to use any other kind of technique you can’t design a questionnaire unless you know what questions to ask you can’t design an experiment and as you know you know basically how people are going to it to respond within certain bounds to your your experimental them manipulations but in the case of the case study you can go in knowing almost nothing about what’s going on and just start asking questions observe things and so on so it’s very open technique very very fits in very well with the kind of exploratory approach to data collection but it can also be descriptive of course you’re writing up what you see there so you’re describing the situation and also it can be expiry in the sense that you begin to understand why things are happening and therefore can explain them so it may be not as powerful as an experiment and when I come to that in a couple weeks time you’ll see experiments are probably the the most powerful way of making judgments about causation and and giving explanations for things and but so can case studies do that as well and case studies can help you understand why people do certain things what motivates them and how they explain what they’re doing and what kind of proceeding activities lead them to do certain kinds of things and in that sense therefore you’re explaining what’s going on as well so all of these things come into account although as I say me exploration finding out what’s there in the first place if you know nothing is probably the the primary motivation for a case study and notice also it’s focused on these two things process how was it done and that course fits in very nicely with the the exploratory question what’s going on here who’s doing what to whom how they doing it and so on and the outcome as well it can be used in a much more kind of evaluative sense a case study can focus on whether something worked if something’s been changed something’s happy two people or some event happens to them then you can ask the questions of what was the outcome what happened as a result of that thing going on so I mean to give you a simple example of how that might fit in with a case study you might do a case study of an election and of course in the election you’re asking how the people operate how do they campaign how do they support they’re there they’re there they’re politicians and how do they get the vote out if it’s a you know that’s important aspect of what they’re doing just think about the presidential elections at the moment you know how does he the TV debates go on and so on all those kind of things asking the the first question the process questions how is it done but of course it’s an election so you can also ask what’s the outcome you know who won why did they win how do they get the vote out you know what kind of people voted and so on so for all those kinds of you know questions about the outcome of the work as well so a typical case study of in that case say an election okay so that’s in outline what we’re focusing on the case study let’s look at a bit more detail of these things first of all let me look at some classical examples of case studies just to show you really two things here one is the the range of different kinds of things I’ll talk bit more about that in later slides but also to talk to to give you some idea of the enormous kind of field that it discovers it is a big range of studies just to start with one of the the real classics and the individual case study and this sum this study I’ve mentioned here the jack roller and this was a study and done by by Stan Lee of a 1/2 million American situations in an American town back in I think I’ve actually forgotten the date now but I think it was in the 1930s the study was actually done so it is really a classic from very long time ago and the jack roller was a picker character whom he researched that the that was one of the the terms used for this this kind of guy who was a bit of a bit of a conman kind of artists and and the the study kind of looked at him he’s life one single person case study so the individual case study and it became a classic in talking about the life of somebody on the margins in in American society you can also have a sets of case studies individual case studies and and I mean just an example of this this is I don’t think this has actually been carried out and but three general general practices you might study so if you’re looking at the Health Service and you want to look at some of the changes particularly now with the the big changes going on in the role of of general practitioners in Health Service you might do a contrast of three different general practices so looking at three single practices notice here the practice is the case the practice is the group of doctors and all the other ancillary workers the nurses and the receptionist and so on who work together to to do the the work of the practice and you might compare three individual patches is that way perhaps picking a very large one a very small one or or one out in the countryside one in a town and one in the suburbs and so on to get a range of different cases I’ll talk more about that kind of procedure of how you pick separate cases in a later slide going a bit further there another another classic area of case studies has been the community studies approach where there are loads of people involve lots and lots of participants and whole communities may even be thousands of people involved but it’s one community it’s picked upon for some particular reason and just give you two very diverse examples here there’s a classic study done back in the 1950s originally went into the sixties I think on family and kinship in East London where the researchers sociologists doing the work picked a area of East London a fairly poor district of East London and and they basically did a very intensive case study with the people living there and they stayed there they interviewed them they recorded what was going on they observed them they of course kept documents that were being kept about the local thermocol authority and so on so they’ve got a range of different data coming in and talked about the kind of life of effectively a working-class community in Britain just after the Second World War by contrast an earlier study done just before the Second World War the azan D in the Sudan was a similar kind of approach with this time done by an anthropologist in fact it was evidence pretty hard a very famous British anthropologist working with the azan D which I think is now from Lincoln writing sayings an area which is now in South Sudan it’s the new country in Africa he was working there when it was still a British colony of course back in the pre-war period previous Second World War period and he basically lived with the the group of people called this and he who spokes him the language that’s why they were called his Andy and actually now I think it’s the Assange’s on the border between South Sudan and Congo that’s what various scientists say might have been in the congos on the time as well and he lived won’t work with them several years and wrote a classic study about their beliefs about their ideas and so on particularly he was fascinated by their notions of magic and witchcraft and so on what role that had in their life and so you know two community studies one NASA logical and one one based in in the UK and much more kind of such a logical approach to things but using similar techniques of observations or there been other studies looking at social groups so rather than defining it by a place you know the the town in the in the case of the East London study or the the villages in the area in the case of the is Andy study in this case it that the definition of the the the case is by virtue of some kind of social phenomenon and in this case I’ve chosen the example how Becker study of marijuana smokers I know again it’s quite an old study and going right back to the 1950s and 60s period but he basically chose just a few people just a few people who were regular smokers of marijuana and hash or whatever they called it and were also musicians and that the things were tied up together being musicians was tied up with drug taking and so on and amongst a group of people so a small group of people defined by their their social position of being musicians and drug takers and looked at how their lives were were led how their drug taking basically was was was part of their that their musical life and so on and it’s a study that came out with the idea that you have to learn how to appreciate the effect of drugs and things like this is that in fact just taking drugs isn’t good enough you having to learn certain things with it as well going further to to the larger scale we can define actual organizations institutions I’ve already mentioned the idea of you know studying an election you could so the critical parties involved for example in these cases that these are studies of particular organizations in one case working for Ford it was a car factory Hugh Bennion study of that actually went to to live and work inside the the factory and worked with the workers in the factory worked alongside them observe them and of course talk to them and so on in that typical anti Balaji cool fashion of the graphic fashion in contrast Nigel fielding and he I think it was his PhD study so many years ago about 30 years ago studied the National Front what he did was actually as a postgraduate researcher quite a dangerous and quite a brave thing to do I think he actually joined in the National Front he actually went along to meetings and activities with them and talked to them of course to find out what what they thought a real inside insight into what the National Front is a far-right organization or it was then I think it’s now defunct being taken up by other far-right organisations but a kind of a fascist my organization in British politics quite a dangerous thing to do and to get involved in that particularly the kind of things he came in off and published later on he wasn’t sympathetic I have to say it should to them so quite an interesting you do that undercover are today no I think it was partly partly undercover and partly not I was I think some people they knew that he was a researcher but a lot of them didn’t know it wasn’t kind of wasn’t it you know he didn’t kind of where I was well I don’t about Ashlyn’s but maybe some people knew where he was from and what his background was but but not everybody did and I’m actually not sure you yeah you’re right in some cases it’s done that way you you you you get permission at the top but loads lower down don’t know but I’m not sure he did that it might have been he had certain certain you know neighbors of his or something new and he knew his background but but actually maybe other people in the higher echelons didn’t know what was going on that certainly was a big fuss after he published his results that and the National Front weren’t all pleased about the results and then last example of some events as cases in this case I’ve given two two and two things I suppose might even sure really wet weather housewife is an event as such and it’s a bit it’s a role isn’t it really run the event but other kinds of things roles and relationships a no clear study of house called housewife at the book she published it was a study of what it was like to be a housewife and it was a very important study in in suddenly bringing open an area that hadn’t been studied before by by by sociologists and of course was accounting for probably close to half the populations experience of life what it was like to be a housewife and the Cuban Missile Crisis had been lots of studies of this but another big event in this case one single thing that the fact that was lot in the media recently about this because it was an anniversary and a week or so ago of the crisis itself when the Soviet Union positions some nuclear weapons in Cuba and the Americans got very upset about that and wanting to draw them and for a time there was on the nuclear brink so it’s because the weather United States and Soviet would the fire weapons at each another so a huge crisis in international politics and there’s been a lot of studies about that and what happened as a case study and of course you can look at that by looking at what the actors did and what they said what what they wrote and you know what TV programs they’re made in selves are enormous amounts of data you can use to bring into that case study okay so what I’ve done try to do here is to give you some idea of the the range of case study approaches so a bit about how they collected the data so you can see that that it’s definitely this kind of holistic approach to research or bringing in things from various sources and looking at things in their context and and that all of them have in common this notion of defining what a case is and that’s an issue we’ll come back to later on

How to write a lab report BIO 101L

in this lecture I am going to go over how to write a lab report and you will need to know this when you write your lab report for the yeast respiration lab that you are doing this week in intro bio specifically you will rate a lab report on procedure 12.1 production of carbon dioxide during anaerobic fermentation when you rate this lab report you are only responsible for the following sections you need to rate the introduction the results section width of figure and the literature cited sections this means that you are omitting the methods section you’ve already practiced writing a method section for a different lab and so we are not going to ask for you to do it here when you rate this lab report you will do well if you use the lab report guide which is on blackboard as instructions and use the examples therein to help make sure that you are using the proper formatting and style if you do this you will probably do very well on this assignment if you don’t then you probably will not do as well as you hope so one more reminder please use the lab report guide we are going to go over the general setup of a lab report now so in a lab report there are several sections each section needs to have its own heading for example when you wrote your materials and methods section you have a heading that said either methods or materials and methods that will be true for the other sections you’re doing this time as well your first section will be the introduction and the traduction has two primary parts the first part is a description of the nature and background of the problem in other words you’re telling the reader what is already known about the system or the question that we are investigating and since you’re telling the reader about things that are already known you should cite previous work from other scientists in this section when you write the introduction the background information must be paraphrased this means it should be in your own words you should not use quotes generally in scientific writing especially lab reports we never use quotes when you give the introduction it doesn’t have to be super long we are probably looking at an introduction that is two or three paragraphs long for this assignment so give the reader just enough pertinent information to orient the reader it would be in the discussion section where you would talk about the background in more depth in comparison to your own results here’s an example of a introduction from a different sort of lab loggerhead turtles kureta kureta are the most common turtle in the Mediterranean Sea and their biology has been described by Miller 1997 they nest on the eastern Basin Shores mainly in Greece from nesting sites hatchling moved to the open ocean foraging on the surface then start a developmental migration towards near shore and continental shelf waters sexually mature turtles moved to specific meeting and nesting sites during the breeding system what I want you to notice here is first I gave the name of the organism being studied and I gave it’s properly formatted scientific name notice two that I told you at the very beginning of this paragraph from where I was getting this information I did not save this citation for the end instead I front loaded it so you would understand that the remaining material from the paragraph was also coming from this source I gave the author’s name as well as the year of publication and we’ll talk more about the specific arrangement of this information in a subsequent slide notice too that this is all in my own words none of these sentences are direct quotes from Miller the second part of the introduction here is where you are going to state the objectives of your study so you’re transitioning from what’s already known to what do you seek to find out in your own work so in this section you are going to explicitly state the purpose of our study and you will state a question probably a general question that you are asking as well as more specific hypotheses being tested and if you have done all of this then the second part of your introduction is going to concisely state why you are performing the investigation now relevant to the specific study you’re doing here with respiration it’s a complex study you’re not just testing one hypothesis instead you are testing multiple different hypotheses this means that you will have multiple different hypothesis statements in your introductory paragraph in that second paragraph talking about the purpose of your study in the introduction you can give a very brief one sentence overview of the approach you are using but you will not describe the methods in detail because that information belongs in the methods section remember that you are not actually reading the methods section for this lab report so just sort of imagine that you did and then you are going to move on directly to the results section this is where you present your own data and statistics relevant to your data there are two general parts to this first is the narrative or the body and this is going to be a simple to the point explanation of exactly what you found you will also refer to either figures or tables and for the respiration lab report we request that you include a figure of your results so it will be a figure in this case in that pair that you’re writing the goal is to explain the figure and present any relevant data that is not represented in figures or tables remember that the reader is looking at the figure and so they already know the exact values or at least a good estimate of the exact values that you measured that means when you write this paragraph do not repeat specific data points for example do not tell me that one of the bar heights was twelve point six millimeters tall I will see that in the figure so simply tell me whether the bar was taller or shorter than other bars to which you are comparing it the body of your results is a narrative and so it needs to be written in coherent paragraph form the first sentence should give us some idea of what’s coming as well as contained pertinent information and all of the other sentences should have substantive information the reader needs to know you need to report any statistical analyses for our purposes this is going to mean statements of what differences are statistically significant and implicitly which ones also are not statistically significant in the results section you are not going to do any interpretation interpreting your results would belong in a discussion section which would come after the results so here you are just very concisely telling us what you found you’re not telling us anything about what it means or whether the results were expected or unexpected for this particular lab you are going to imagine that you have written a results or a discussion section and that you explained the meaning and interpretation of the results there we will not actually ask you to break that section for this lab but that is where the information would go if you were doing so in the results do not describe the methods again that information would have gone in the materials and methods section do not tell us anything subjective about your data for example don’t tell us whether your result was good don’t tell us whether your result was unexpected or not real simply state what you found you could in the discussion section tell us something about your interpretation of the quality of the results if you were reading that section when you rate your results for the respiration study you’re doing this week you should explain your results in the structure that parallels your hypotheses this will make it easy for the reader to follow so what does this mean imagine that in the introduction you hypothesized that treatment a would increase the rate of fermentation relative to treatment B if you made that hypothesis whatever a and B are then in the results you will need to have a sentence that indicates whether in fact a did increase the respiration rate relative to B and if it did you would also need to specify whether the difference between the two groups was large enough that it was statistically significant this term will appear a lot sentences will typically say there was a difference between a and B and it was statistically significant or the difference between a and B was in the Direction hypothesized however the difference was not statistically significant and you are going to repeat a statement like this for each of your hypotheses it’s okay if the reading is boring um you don’t get bonus points for changing sentence structure just make it really easy to follow and is similar to the actual hypotheses as possible after the results section would be the discussion but you are not responsible for reading the discussion for this week’s lab so instead you are going to go directly on to your literature cited section the literature cited is where you list all of the scientific articles or books that you actually referred to in the body of your lab report so anything that you mentioned in the introduction or discussion here are some general rules for literature cited first you can only cite scientific journals and books you are not allowed to cite websites unless your instructor specifically allows you to do so and he should not need to for this particular lab report so if you got information from infectious bite at blogspot.com about vampire respiration it might be interesting and even useful but you are not allowed to cite it in your lab report or in your literature cited section you also cannot use popular press magazines so these are magazines written for the general public not for scientists specifically such as Newsweek or Time or Discover Magazine you are all allowed to put in your literature cited section articles that you have actually referenced in the body of your report so going back to that sample introduction that we book that way back here we explicitly referred to something that Miller in 1997 said that means Miller 1997 will have to appear somewhere in our literature cited section if you simply read background on something but you do not use that information explicitly in your lab report then it needs to be omitted from your literature cited section the citations have a specific format and the format is described in detail in the lab report guide I will briefly go over it here but please refer to the lab report guide for details the citations need to be in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author and the first author is whichever one is listed first in the publication itself you don’t get to move around author names the order of names is decided based on who did the most work so you need to keep those names in the same order as the article in which they are published you need to list all author names in the literature cited section this is different than what you’ll actually do in the body of your introduction and we’ll talk about that in a couple of slides but for this section if there are six authors you need to list all six if there are seven you need to list all seven after seven we start to make exceptions to this but it will not be relevant for this particular lab report and so is an example literature cited section you can see some of these articles have only one author but this one has two and they are both listed most of your information will come from scientific articles and the format for those are as follows names of authors such as shown here last name first for the first author comma initials and then after the first author we switched the order initials first followed by last name the final author we put an aunt before their name then their first initial of their last name and then the period after the period comes the year of publication for example 2000 then comes the article title no this only proper nouns plus the first word are capitalized so anti-predator is capitalized all of the other words are lowercase except for the proper noun which is the genus and remember scientific names are always capital lowercase capital first lowercase second and italicized that same rule holds even if it’s in the title of an article after the article title we get a period and then the journal title the journal title gets italicized and all of the important words are capitalized here we don’t capitalize articles or prepositions then we get a period we have the volume of publication followed by a colon followed by the page numbers again to get that information in a easier format find it in the lab report guide for a book we are going to do authors followed by periods followed by year period book title which is capitalized except prepositions and articles period the location of publication : the name of the publisher now let’s go back and talk about how you will cite information in the actual text of the lab report for example let’s go back to our sentence that referred to Miller 1997 in the introduction the most usual way of doing this is simply by paraphrasing the information in your own words in the sentence and then after the sentence putting a parenthesis and then the name of the author or authors followed by the year alternatively you can include the author in the actual body of the sentence if you do that then following the author or authors you need to include the year of publication for example let’s move this up Miller parentheses 1997 parentheses explains Dada Dada the rest of the information so you can see here that since we used Miller’s name in the sentence we only put the year of publication in parentheses and that goes immediately after the author’s name one if there are two authors if there are two authors then you are going to include both of their last names in the in-text citation as shown here we have anyway and Makita space 1996 what if there are three or more authors in this case we no longer list all of their names in the text of the writing we still would in the literature cited section but in the text we list only the first one followed by the Latin phrase at all at all is Latin for and others and so we are implicitly acknowledging all of the authors saying that there’s more than one but we’re only listening the name of the first one because this is Latin we will italicize it and because al is an abbreviation we put a period after it at et is not an abbreviation it’s Latin for and and so we do not put a period after that for this particular lab report you need to cite the articles that we provide for you on blackboard plus your lab book when you write scientific names remember that the first word is the genus it is capitalized and italicized the second word is the species epithet it is lower case but italicized you will need to include the name of the yeast we are using as part of your lab report the next rule varies by discipline in some subjects um such as some parts of chemistry but they would give you exactly the opposite advice and so this is always a good question to ask your instructor in a new course but for our purposes in introductory biology we want you to always use the active voice remember from English that the active voice is one where the subject of the sentence then does an action so for example if you are writing about um doing something medical you would rate I examined patients that is the active voice the passive voice would be the examination of patients was accomplished by me here the subject that’s actually doing the work is in the second half of the sentence that’s passive inactive the subject doing the work is at the start of the sentence you have already seen that I am picky about grammar and style as well as mechanics so carefully proofread your lab report after you’ve written it it is always easier to catch somebody else’s mistakes so after you have completed writing a draft of your lab report and after your classmate has already done so then I suggest exchanging papers and commenting on each other’s writing I asked you not to exchange papers or let anyone else read your draft unless you have confirmed that they have already finished reading theirs this is to prevent them from plagiarizing you because if they pledge arise you both of you can end up in trouble since it is hard for us to determine who was the original Raider and who was the plagiarize er so it is allowed and even encouraged to review each other’s work but do it after everybody has completed their initial draft you should turn in your lab report as one single document on blackboard all in one this means making your graph in Excel and then pasting your graph into the Word document then upload that entire document to blackboard it needs to be double-spaced with 12-point font such as Arial or Calibri whatever the default font is on your board processor will be okay with me this is an explicit reminder that plagiarism is not allowed and there’s a statement about this in the USC Upstate Code of Student Conduct so students caught plagiarizing materials in lab reports will be submitted for disciplinary action as outlined in that code student conduct this could be plagiarizing from a published source such as by using somebody else’s words without putting them in quotes or by paraphrasing somebody else’s ideas without giving a reference for where those ideas came from we will use plagiarism checking software on blackboard and this is one way that we can detect plagiarism we can also detect it simply by recognizing ourselves that there are similarities between reports that cannot be explained simply by the shared assignment I will reduce scores on late lab reports by 10 percent per day so if it’s about a 30-point assignment you would lose about 3 points per day um instead of winning for the last minute please plan ahead for complications and one more reminder and our lab next week we will be studying photosynthesis whether or not there is a quiz scheduled we are always allowed to give pop quizzes so you should review your respiration notes prior to lab next week and in the background there that is my cat cemani